# GLSL Functions

## Definition of Smoothstep Function

By taking $$x^2$$ we have a function that starts smoothly at $$0$$ but ends rather harsh at $$1$$. When we take the same function, push it one to the right and flip it arund we get $$-(x-1)^2$$. By adding 1 we move the parabola to $$1$$ and have a function with smooth ending.

When we now interpolate both functions

$\begin{array}{rl}f(x) &= x^2\\g(x) &= 1-(x-1)^2\end{array}$

we get a smooth function

$\sigma(x) = f(x) \cdot (1-x) + g(x) \cdot x = x^2(3-2x)$

Since we want the function to operate in $$[0,1]$$, we clamp the input value of $$x$$:

$x'=\max(0, \min(1, x))$

Since the smoothstep function in GLSL has two ramp parameters $$a$$ and $$b$$, we shift the curve by $$a$$ first:

$x'=\max(0, \min(1, x - a))$

The second ramp parameter $$b$$ depends on the slope of the ramp, so

$x'=\max\left(0, \min\left(1, \frac{x - a}{b-a} \right)\right)$

which finally leads to the smooth step function:

$\sigma(x; a, b):= \sigma\left(\max\left(0, \min\left(1, \frac{x - a}{b-a} \right)\right)\right)$

The good thing is, if $$b < a$$, the function flips over, which is exactly the behavior of the GLSL implementation.

## Definition of Mix Function

$\text{mix}(\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}, p) := \mathbf{a} + p \cdot (\mathbf{b} - \mathbf{a})$

## Definition of Step Function

$\text{step}(\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}) := \mathbf{b} < \mathbf{a}\text{ ? }\mathbf{0} : \mathbf{1}$

## Smooth Staircase

Let $$\sigma : [0, 1]\to[0,1]$$ be a step function with $$\sigma(x)=0$$ $$\forall x<\epsilon$$ and $$\sigma(x)=1$$ $$\forall x>1-\epsilon$$. A smooth staircase with step size 1 is then

$\Gamma(x) = \sigma(x - \left\lfloor x\right\rfloor) + \left\lfloor x\right\rfloor$

If a given width and height of the steps is required, we can rescale $$\Gamma$$ to get

$\Gamma(x ; w, h) = h\cdot \Gamma\left(\frac{x}{w}\right) = h\cdot \left[\sigma\left(\frac{x}{w} - \left\lfloor \frac{x}{w}\right\rfloor\right) + \left\lfloor \frac{x}{w}\right\rfloor\right]$

## Derivation of logical float functions

$\begin{array}{rl}\text{not}(x) &:= 1 - x\\\text{and} (x, y) &:= x y\\\text{or} (x, y) &:= \text{not}(\text{and}(\text{not}(x), \text{not}(y))) = x + y - x y\\\text{xor} (x, y) &:= \text{or}(\text{and}(x, \text{not}(y)), \text{and}(y, \text{not}(x))) = x + y - 2 x y\\\text{implies}(x, y) &:= \text{or}(\text{not}(x), y) = 1 - x + x y\\x\text{ ? } y : z &:= x y + (1 - x) z = z + x(y - z)\\\end{array}$

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